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Bacteria E. coli

06 Decembrie 2013

art_bacterii_virusuriBacteria E. Coli sau Escherichia coli este una dintre bacteriile care se gasesc in mod natural in interiorul intestinelor si care ajuta la digerarea alimentelor.

 

Insa exista anumite tulpini ale bacteriei care sunt nocive pentru organism si provoaca infectii bacteriene. Acestea se gasesc adesea pe legume sau in unele tipuri de carne.

Bacteria E. coli face parte din familia enterobacteriaceelor si constituie 80% din flora aeroba a tubului digestiv. In mod normal, ea face parte din bacteriile care se gasesc in organism si care nu provoaca infectii, adica nu determina boli.

 

Majoritatea tulpinilor acestei bacterii sunt inofensive, insa exista si exceptii.

Cum se transmite bacteria E. coli?

Bacteria E. coli este prezenta in organismului inca din primele zile de viata. Contaminarea cu tulpini periculoase se face prin contactul direct cu produse biologice care o contin: fecale, apa, alimente etc.

Transmiterea se face de la om la om atunci cand nu sunt respectate conditiile elementare de igiena. De exemplu, atunci cand dai mana cu cineva infectat, care nu s-a spalat corespunzator pe maini.

transmitere_Bacteria_E_coli_spalat_maini_necorespunzatorCare sunt simptomele infectiei cu E. coli?

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Atunci cand organismul se infecteaza cu tulpini periculoase ale bacteriei E.coli, ele trec din intestin in sange si provoaca infectii. Infectiile pot fi asimptomatice. O parte dintre cei infectati pot contracta bacteria si pot fi doar purtatori, fara a manifesta boala. Acest lucru inseamna ca pot transmite bacteria mai departe.

Simptomele incep sa apara cam la 3-4 zile dupa contactarea ei. Atunci cand esti infectata cu E. coli manifesti urmatoarele simptome:

  • crampe stomacale sau dureri in jurul ombilicului (sensibilitate la palpare usoara);

 

  • greata si varsaturi;

 

  • diaree (uneori cu urme de sange).

 

 

 

 

 

Ce alimente pot fi contaminate cu E.coli?

Una dintre caile principale de contaminare ramane alimentatia. Exista o serie de alimente care reprezinta un factor de risc crescut pentru contractarea de tulpini ale bacteriei care pot cauza infectii. Printre cele la care trebuie sa fii atenta si sa ai grija cu ele in alimentatia copiilor se numara:

  • carne de vita gatita necorespunzator sau insuficient;

 

  • lapte crud sau produse lactate nepasteurizate;

 

  • legume cultivate cu ingrasaminte organice pe baza de balegar de vaca;

 

  • alimente spalate in ape contaminate;

 

  • suc de fructe nepasteurizat;

 

  • legume si fructe nespalate sau spalate necorespunzator etc.

 

fructe_nespalate_infectie_bacterii

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Procesul de pasteurizare este esential in distrugerea germenilor din alimente. Pasteurizarea reprezinta fierberea alimentelor la o anumita temperatura cu scopul de a distruge microorganismele vii. Printre alimentele care trebuie sa fie sau sa contina ingrediente pasteurizate se numara: mierea, smantana, branza, ouale, vinul, mierea, berea, produsele conservate.

Cum se trateaza infectia cu E. coli?

Infectia de trateaza cu antibiotice pentru ca este de natura bacteriana. Mai intai se face o antibiograma pentru a se descoperi care este antibioticul cel mai potrivit pentru distrugerea bacteriei. Terapia mai include si reglarea nivelului de lichide si minerale din organism. In cazuri complicate se apeleaza la dializa sau la transfuzii sanguine. Insa acestea sunt cazuri izolate.

Atentie, nu se incearca terapia ambulatorie cu medicamente pentru ameliorarea simptomelor precum antidiareice (este important ca toxinele sa fie eliminate prin fecale) sau produsi pe baza de salicilati sau antiinflamatoare nesteroidiene (favorizeaza sangerarile tractului gastrointestinal).

 

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